on U.S. Highway 93, thirty miles south of Alamo, Nevada
The 37th degree north latitude is marked at this point as the dividing line between the territories of Utah and New Mexico under the provisions of the Compromise of 1850 which originally organized the land ceded by Mexico in 1848.
When the territory of Nevada was carved from western Utah in 1861, this line became the southern boundary of the new territory and continued to serve as such when the territory and state were enlarged by extensions to the east in 1862 and 1866 respectively.
In 1867, the Nevada legislature approved the action of Congress to add that portion of the territory of Arizona which lay to the south of this line, west of the 114 west longitude and the Colorado River, and to the east of the boundary of California. This action, taken on January 18, 1867, gave the state of Nevada the permanent boundaries as they are today.
on U.S. Highway 93 in Caliente, Nevada
Caliente was first settled as a ranch, furnishing hay for the mining camps of Pioche and Delmar. In 1901, the famous Harriman-Clark right-of-way battle was ended when rancher Charles Culverwell, with the aid of a broad-gauge shotgun, allowed one railroad grade to be built through his lush meadows. Harriman and Clark had been battling eleven years building side-by-side grades, ignoring court orders and federal marshals.
The population boom began with an influx of railroad workers, most of them immigrants from Austria, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire. A tent city was settled in August 1903.
With the completion of the Los Angeles, San Pedro, and Salt Lake Railroad in 1905, Caliente became a division point. In 1906-07, the Caliente and Pioche Railroad (now the Union Pacific) was built between Pioche and the main line at Caliente. The large Mission revived style depot was built in 1923, serving as a civic center, as well as a hotel.
on State Route 319 at Panaca Firehouse
Southern Nevada’s first permanent settlement was settled as a Mormon colony by Francis C. Lee and others in 1864. Poor in resources, but rich in people, Panaca has changed little through the years. Although mining at nearby Bullionville and Pioche has had its effect, Panaca remains an agricultural community.
The post office was established in 1867, moved to Bullionville in 1874, and returned in 1879. During the 1870s coke ovens produced charcoal here for the smelters at Bullionville.
Originally located in Washington County, Utah, Panaca became part of Nevada by an act of Congress, dated May 5, 1866. As the boundary was not then surveyed, a dispute arose over taxes levied by Lincoln County, Nevada. The matter settled in favor of the Panaca citizenry on December 4, 1871, after a long period of bitter litigation.
on U.S. Highway 93 at Alamo Junction
“The rolling stones of Pahranagat,” a hoax article on magnetic currents written in 1862 by Dan De Quille of the Territorial Enterprise made this valley world famous. Three local springs fill its lakes and irrigate its fields.
The Crystal Spring area, used as a watering spot and campsite, was a principal stopover on the Mormon trail alternate route. In the late 1850s, this area was a haven for outlaws who pastured hundreds of head of stolen cattle in its meadows. Although named as the provisional county seat in 1866, no significant town was built here.
Ore was discovered in 1865 on Mount Irish, and Logan City sprang briefly into existence. A stamp mill was established at Hiko in 1866 to crush the ore, and it became the center of activity for the valley when it became the county seat in 1867. It was the largest community in Lincoln County until local mining declined and Pioche claimed the county seat in 1871.
Alamo, established in 1900 is the valley’s largest present-day settlement. The area now includes several ranches and the Pahranagat Valley National Wildlife Refuge.
on U.S. Highway 93 Alternate in Pioche, Nevada
Silver ore was discovered in this range of mountains in 1864, but no important development took place until 1869 when mines were opened and the town of Pioche was founded. Pioche soon became the scene of a wild rush of prospectors and fortune seekers. It gained a reputation in the 1870s for tough gunmen and bitter lawsuits. Miners had retrieved over five million dollars in ore by 1872, but by 1900, Pioche was nearly a ghost town.
Designated as the seat of Lincoln County in 1871, Pioche survived hard times as a supply and government center for a vast area. Beginning in 1937, Pioche enjoyed two decades of profitable lead-zinc mining.